El libro de los sellos en el Calendario Maya (Spanish Edition)
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Indeed, these historical narratives provide a unique window into ancient Mesoamerican concepts of time, history, drama, worldview and memory. Incorporated in these codices are numerous auditive scenes: events in the story line in which musical behaviour plays an important role. The present thesis examines these scenes, aiming to get a more comprehensive and arguably more full-fledged understanding of musical behaviour in pre-colonial Mixtec society. Since musical behaviour plays an important role in the formation of personal as well as social identities, research into musical behaviour of past cultures can contribute significantly to the knowledge about the worldviews of these cultures.
Mixtec codices provide excellent means for this, since the stories in these manuscripts not only tell about individual actions and events in a certain time period, but also include important information about how these events related to a wider, socio-cultural context. As such, this thesis examines the role of musical behaviour contained in auditive scenes of pre-colonial Mixtec codices on the levels of the text, their conveyance and their socio-cultural context. The results of these analyses show that musical behaviour played an important role in codices at a variety of levels.
On the basis of these findings, recommendations for further research are provided. Yanagisawa, Saeko ; Escalante Gonzalbo, Pablo dir. By means of his works the Catecismo en Pictogramas [ca. The present work aims to fill this void. The important role Gante and his works played in the process of transculturation is demonstrated through an interdisciplinary contextual framework that employs agency theory, New Philology, Colonial semiosis and annales theory. This process was by no means straightforward and involved the translation of an entire set of cultural and cosmological referents from one system of beliefs to another.
The significance of this, cannot be overlooked, with the translation Gante started an open-dialogue with the Nahuas. Showing that the evangelization of Mexico was not a simple process of imposition, but a complex process in which the different elements of society had a voice and accommodated and negated the influence of the other while constructing new cultural categories.
Thesis Ph. Doctorado Facultad de Letras y Ciencias Humanas. Year burning iconography in Post Classic manuscripts is indicative of aspects of Mesoamerican beliefs and customs with greater zones of influence than other, more distinctive ritual prescriptions and regional cultural knowledge, also present in the illuminations. Examining pages in these manuscripts which describe comparable periods of transition common throughout Mesoamerica provides valuable insight into how beliefs and practices described in each manuscript group conform to established regional trends, and how and where they depart from the calendrical conventions and the temporal ritual organization of contemporaneous civilizations.
Iconography related to celebrations designed to renew time are investigated within the context of Post classic Mesoamerican art and culture. Es decir, cuatro cosmogramas. Abstract : This research develops the interpretation of four images of pre-Columbus time in the region known as Mesoamerica. It is based on the idea that various cultures in this area shared the same view of the world there are, of course, differences in details, but generally it is the same , and that in this world view there is a hard nucleus, resistant to change throughout time. In other words, four cosmograms.
Two images were chosen that appear to be similar, they both have the same base, a codex, which come from different relatively distant cultures the Mayan and the Mixtec. The other two cosmograms were chosen with contrasts, the base material a painted wall and a monolith , and the time gap, from 8 to 9 centuries. Each cosmogram was the object of a specific thorough investigation, in which some of the components that had not been yet specified, were identified here, and in some cases more general interpretations were built.
Also, some of the theories that are currently in vogue were discussed and questioned, and in all cases those things that have not been determined, were tried to be determined with more clarity. In those cases, we advanced in hypothesis of different importance. More than wanting to advance in each particular investigation, we used the comparison of the four cosmograms.
The more cosmograms were used, the greater interpretative potential was verified. This multiple comparison is suggested not only as a method for the study of cosmograms in general, but also of other important representations that may not be labeled as a cosmogram but that also have a need to keep the similarities with the structure of the cosmos. The basic characteristics of the cosmos seem to be: the preeminence of a central axis that has an ulterior unfolding in a four-part structure; as a consequence, the existence of four cosmic axes, frequently used as trees with various birds.
To the earthly plane, there seems to be a representation of the flow of time, in a levorotatory counterclockwise manner and it is also sometimes distributed in its respective cardinal regions of origin. Diverse symbols are added, beings, animals or plants, that emphasize the nature of each cosmic area. However, these characteristics are never represented at the same time, some are insinuated through various resources.
In particular, I examine its provenance and evaluate its known documented history.
How did this manuscript, produced in in Mexico by native artists and scribes, reach Europe and when? This reexamination highlights the absence of documentation supporting the widely-held belief that the Codex Mendoza reached France and not Spain, its intended destination, after the ship carrying it to Europe was plundered by pirates. Significantly, almost no comparisons exist in the literature on the topic making this comparison one of the first such contextual stylistic analyses of the Codex Mendoza.
In addition, the methodologies employed by art historians in their study of the style of sixteenth-century manuscripts from New Spain have proved problematic, and in the case of the Codex Mendoza specifically, its believed European patronage has preconditioned interpretations of its artistic style. To address this problem I compare the Codex Mendoza with a contemporaneous manuscript of similar provenance.
The comparison reveals that the existence and circulation of multiple visual styles and narrative strategies in manuscripts during the s in New Spain was directly related to the intended purpose of the manuscript itself. The thesis begins with a close examination of the manuscript and the currently accepted history associated with it. Maestro en Estudios Mesoamericanos. This supports the view that considers this decisive event as a medieval extension of the Spanish understanding of the world, as different to the logical approach of modern renaissance times.
In doing so the friars would also be able to detect and eradicate idolatry in order to effectively establish Christianity. The ideas are developed in four chapters. Chapter I summarizes medieval cultural signs that are to be found in both manuscripts as is the privilege of memory over observation: the truth is so as long as it exists in the memory not as a result of empirical verification. Chapter two deals with the description of the studied manuscripts in terms of their medieval codices strong similarities in structure and characteristics, specifically with Franciscan tradition manuscript making.
Next chapter is a review of five iconographic analysis of these codices illustrations. The specialists approached their analysis from different methodologies useful to contrast the present thesis results. The fourth chapter is dedicated to the inquiry of an image selection that explains the end of both studied cultures, interestingly enough, through the assimilation of the new imposed paradigms: forms, significance and values of medieval image making. Key words: social history of art, colonial codices, medieval codices, medieval art, iconography, iconology.
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Un calendario sagrado entre los Ayook de Oaxaca , Leiden : Leinden university, The present study comprises a documentation of one of these calendars, among the Ayook people of Oaxaca, Mexico. The aim was to record the sacred count of the days, still managed effectively by women, along with its relationship to other culturally significant symbolism, for instance in the realm of ritual, divination, world vision perceptions, and origin narratives.
Licenciado en Historia. Doctorado en Letras. Doctor en Estudios Mesoamericanos. Maestro en Historia. Licenciado en Artes Visuales. Abstract : Cuzco is now known as the ancient Inca capital. Crossroads between different regions and ecological levels of Peru, Cuzco Region contains many different resources, which attracted people since the Preceramic Period.
The first culture confirmed, Marcavalle, set up cultural traditions that will lead, almost years later, the great Inca Empire. This thesis consists to redefine the chronology of the region based on various sources available to us. This study attempts to redefine the map of the region thanks to the many ruins and the few written sources and, in order to trace the course of the ethnic ancestors of the Incas. Early postcontact witnesses of the surviving Mexica-Aztec and their culture described the many Central Mexican gods and goddesses with fascination but limited clarity.
Similarly compelled to describe with the proliferation of Mexica-Aztec images and effigies, recent scholarship describes manifestations of this cosmic animation gods, deities, supernaturals, spirits and forces.
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These terms may approach how the Mexica-Aztec and other Central Mexicans spoke of the cosmic animation they divined and venerated, but these approximations have outlived their usefulness in the study of Mexica-Aztec religion. This dissertation re-examines two fundamental components of Mexica-Aztec religion: teotl pl. These terms revolve around concepts of deities and their manifestation, and they have evaded easy transcription.
However, an examination of their concurrence in older Nahuatl descriptions of Mexica-Aztec rituals confirms the importance of their cultural specificity. The central thesis of this study is that a better understanding of how teteo and ixiptla function together in language and in ritual contexts will enable a more informed discussion of the nature of teteo, their representation, identification and classification.
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Additionally, they provide insights into how the Mexica-Aztec might have animated ixiptla, the localized embodiments of their teteo. As a result of this dissertation, I hope to make a meaningful contribution to the understanding of Mexica-Aztec religion by clarifying the ways in which the Mexica-Aztec conceived of teteo, defined their attributes and animated them as ixiptla. Williams, Robert Lloyd ; Stross, Brian dir. The superficial narrative structure of Codex Zouche-Nuttall, document 1 is then defined and interpretative reading techniques employed in this dissertation are applied to it.
The codex document 1 contents pages are then listed in detail by section, structure, personnel, events, and native dates corresponded with the European calendar, this latter in so far as is possible. This definition explicates each of three bifurcated sections of the document, each section consisting of a story plus genealogy or genealogies. Additionally, essays on codex contents are provided to further elaborate these divisions of study within Codex Zouche-Nuttall document 1.
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These essays explore certain mysterious parts of the stories, as in the case of the Ladies Three Flint and the Four Lords from Apoala. Inferences are made from codex text regarding Postclassic Period Mixtec social organization via both political structure and religion. The end result is a concise elaboration and explanation of the entire document. Licenciatura en Historia.
El trabajo se estructura en dos grandes bloques. The first part of this thesis engages the problem of cultural translation on the iconography of the human body. By appropriating European iconography and alphabetic texts into Amerindian Cosmovision, the tlacuilos chose to represent their colonial present not as the demise of their world, but as a continuation of it within their cyclical view of time.
Montoro, Glaucia Cristiani ; Karnal, Leandro dir. A codicological study , Abstract : The present work focuses on a manuscript of indigenous tradition called Codex Telleriano Remensis, created in the mid sixteenth-century in the central region of Mexico. It is a work of European sponsorship which is composed of a native notation system, basically pictographic, and through texts in latin characters.
The research is hence focused on the material characteristics of the Codex support, material organization, binding, restorations, etc. The main objective of this analysis was to re-construct the history of its creation, with special emphasis on its pictographic content. The work developed brought important data into light regarding the history of the creation and development of the manuscript.
The task was undertaken by several tlacuilos, which a related to different style traditions of Central Mexico and who show various forms of adapting the traditional indigenous contents to European paper and book formats, as well as to the needs of the new users.