Le Chagrin (French Edition)
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Some of the twenty 'chapters' or 'sections' of the novel -which are untitled and unnumbered in the original- had been previously published in different Latin American literary magazines and the Colombian newspaper El Espectator. He described there the features of a new novel which "demonstrated the death of bourgeois realism and the advent of a much more powerful literary reality", which was to characterize the Latin American Boom.
Until one day he found out what was wrong. Instead of insisting on keeping a rigid and realist temporal structure, he had to use time as freely as he used space:. In Munday's , p. There have been many editions of the novel in Latin America and in Spain. For this analysis I am using the edition published by Editorial Oveja Negra as part of the series Biblioteca de Literatura Colombiana.
According to Zuluaga , p. Berstein in On the cover no mention is made of Gregory Rabassa. At the bottom of the third page, in rather small letters, it reads: Translated from the Spanish by Gregory Rabassa. Then, on the next page is a family tree a paratext which does not appear in the original. The text of the novel finishes on page On pages there is a commentary a metatext on One Hundred Years of Solitude.
Le Chagrin et la pitié, la France des années noires
The back cover is split into two columns. On the left there appear two laudatory comments, one by William Kennedy from New York Times Book Review: " One Hundred Years of Solitude is the first piece of literature since the book of Genesis that should be required reading for the entire human race", and another by Paul West from Book World: "Fecund, savage, irresistible In all their loves, madness and wars, their alliances, compromises, dreams and deaths The characters rear up large and rippling with life against the green pressure of nature itself.
Translated by Gregory Rabassa. All paratexts and metatexts included in the translation seem to have a clear commercial purpose. They help to sell the book by convincing potential buyers of the literary quality of the book.
Le Chagrin des Ogres
In the English editions there is something which calls for particular attention: the inclusion of a family-tree which does not appear in the original. Translation and Its Dyscontents. A Memoir , where he writes about his long translation experience with works of the best known Latin American and Brazilian authors, he comments on the episode of the family tree:. Thus, there was an initial agreement between the initiator's translation instruction about including a family tree and the translator's view, even though later on Rabassa had second thoughts about it.
This could be a case of a phenomenon we could call back intertextuality. But a family tree is easier than it seems to be What is clear here is that the English editors of the novel had a patronizing attitude towards the TL readership. By including the tree they would impose a certain reading of the novel which would 'make it easier' to comprehend who the different characters were, thereby avoiding the possibility of getting confused. I am using in this analysis the edition. His extraordinarily extensive and high-quality translation activity can be likened to that of Gregory Rabassa in the English speaking world.
However, unlike Rabassa, unfortunately he has not written about his translation work. This additional information which is not in the original is aimed at helping potential readers, not well-acquainted with Latin American literature, to identify the book's genre.
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On the third page there appears again the author's name and the book's title, followed by the word 'novel' Roman and by the translator's name: Aus dem Spanischen von Curt Meyer-Clason. On page 7 the text of the novel begins. The novel finishes on page On the back cover it reads that One Hundred Years of Solitude has sold over million copies worldwide and belongs to the great novels of the 20th century.
It was the first translation of the novel into a foreign language. I am using the edition in this analysis. The novel was translated by Claude and Carmen Durand.
Cent Ans de Solitude. On the third page the names of the author and the novel are included. Traduit de l'espagnol Colombie par Claude et Carmen Durand. However, unlike in the German translation, the word 'novel' does not appear on the cover, but on the back cover of the French translation. The text of the novel begins on page 9 and finishes on page On pages there is a list of books which appeared in the Collection Points.
On the back cover, as said above, the word 'novel' has been included, followed by the names of the author and the novel and information that the text was translated by Claude and Carmen Durand. There are three footnotes included in the text. Rabassa solved this problem by adding an explanation directly in the English text: "The leader of the squad, a specialist in summary executions, had a name that had much more about than chance: Captain Roque Carnicero, which meant butcher " p.
Rabassa translated the nickname into English: "Father Nicanor, consumed by hepatic fever, was replaced by Father Coronel, whom they called "The Pup", a veteran of the first federalist war" p. The third footnote also appears in chapter 8. If the reader does not know the actual name of Zorrilla's work, there is confusion in understanding the passage. The footnote clarifies the pejorative connotation of the word godos , which was kept in the original Spanish form to facilitate the direct link to Zorrilla's work.
Rabassa keeps the diffuse allusion in English in the same way as it appears in the original: "He went to the theater, where a Spanish company was putting on The Dagger of the Fox , which was really Zorrilla's play with the title changed by order of Captain Aquiles Ricardo, because the liberals called the conservatives Goths" p. I am using in this analysis the 40th edition. It was translated by Eliane Zagury. On the third page there appears a list of works by the author Obras do autor. Free distribution Programa Nacional Biblioteca do Professor. The copyright information appears on page 5.
The novel begins on page 7 and finishes on page Thirteen footnotes paratexts have been added to the Portuguese text. Six of them are identified as translator 's notes N. Rabassa also left the original term untranslated in English but italicized it: 'cumbiamba' p. Zagury also included a footnote in the Portuguese translation to explain the original metaphor 'el fragante y agusanado guayabal del amor' p. Rabassa left the original term 'Papiamento' p.
In Meyer-Clason German translation the language variety 'Papiamento' became 'gibberish': 'Kauderwelsch' p. Finally, in a footnote Zagury explains her understanding of the original's metaphor 'garrapatitas moradas' p.
It was translated into English as 'purple scribbling' p. It is copyrighted in The novel was translated by N.
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Butirina and V. There are other two translations, one by T. Korobkina in and another by Pravosudov in On the first page it reads Symposium in Latin characters. On the fourth page it reads that the edition was prepared and commented by Victor Andreev, and the artist was Michael Zan'ko. The text of the novel begins on page 7 and finishes on page The notes contain a brief literary commentary on the novel , immediately followed by a glossary of entries about the terms of the novel rooted in the Latin American culture e. There are no asterisks or other marks in the text of the novel which indicate that a word has been included in the glossary, so it is up to the reader to consult the glossary as he sees fit.
A Table of Contents of the edition appears on page On pages there are commercial ads on other books by the publishing house "Symposium. There are four footnotes in the Russian translation. The first two appear in chapter 5 and refer to the use of Latin sentences in the novel.
"il est brisé par le chagrin" English translation
The original Spanish reads:. This man has discovered the fourth state of matter" lat. This fact irrefutably proves the existence of God" lat. The English p. This may indicate that the translators and editors of these translations presupposed more familiarity with the Latin language on the part of the TL readers than in the case of the average Russian readers. Likewise, in the third footnote lack of familiarity with the English language is also presupposed. In chapter 18 the original reads:.
Rabassa reproduces the original term in the English translation p. Meyer-Clason maintained the original English term in inverted commas: ' Sanskrit Primer ' p.